Greek nature educational theory, knowledge of the seasonal variations

However, there is unquestionable certainty on the source of the prevailing concept, known as the Nature educational theory. Monumental significance of the notion that human physis, or nature, should serve as the foundation for the entire educational process. In Thucydides’ work, we observed the presence of a similar concept that has been historically applied. We witnessed how his approach to history is based on the underlying belief in the existence of a universal and unchanging ‘human nature’.

Both the sophists and Thucydides were affected by modern medicine, which had introduced the concept of human nature. This concept was derived from the idea of the vast physis, or the Nature of the cosmos, which was established by Ionian philosophy. The preamble of the treatise “On airs, waters, and places” is an excellent example of how Hippocratean medical thinking relies on the holistic philosophical perspective of nature. To study medicine effectively, one must adhere to the following guidelines.

Initially, he must analyze the impacts of each season throughout the year on both the seasons themselves and the concept of harmony. The sophists and their philosophy served as the foundation for all of its endeavors. However, these two entities are not similar at all; in fact, they are highly distinct from one other, both in their inherent nature and in their respective transformations.

Next, he must examine both warm and cold winds, focusing primarily on those that have a global impact, and subsequently those that are specific to a single geographical area. In addition, he must conduct research on the impacts of various types of water, as their effects vary significantly due to differences in flavor and weight. Upon arriving in an unfamiliar city, the doctor must initially assess its geographical orientation, taking into consideration the prevailing winds, the direction of the dawn, the quality of its water, and the characteristics of its soil.

Having knowledge of the seasonal variations in its climate and the celestial patterns of star rising and setting enables one to accurately predict the upcoming year’s conditions. If somebody believes that this bears too much like to natural science, they should realize, with more reflection, that astronomy can provide significant assistance to medicine. Human diseases exhibit seasonal variations.

The individual who approached the challenge of disease in such a manner evidently has a highly exceptional intellect. This is primarily evident in his perception of the interconnectedness and unity of all things. He does not isolate an illness and analyze it as an independent issue. He gazes intently and perceptively at the individual afflicted with the disease, observing him within his natural environment governed by universal principles and unique attributes.

The essence of Milesian natural philosophy is equally evident in the profound words of the essay “On the divine disease.” The author notes that this ailment is no more nor less divine than any other, and originates from the same natural factors as other diseases. Indeed, they possess both divine and human qualities. The notion of physis, which formed the foundation of pre-Socratic philosophy, saw its greatest effective application and expansion in the medical theory regarding the physical nature of humans. This theory served as a model for all subsequent applications of the concept to the spiritual nature of humans.